Atlantic Pest and Termite Management Inc
1720 Signal Point Road Charleston, SC 29412 ph: 843.795.4010 fax: 843.795.4498 firstname.lastname@example.org
Mosquitoes are very widespread, occurring in all regions of the world except for Antarctica. In warm and humid tropical regions, they are active for the entire year, but in temperate regions they hibernate over winter. Arctic mosquitoes may be active for only a few weeks as pools of water form on top of the permafrost. During that time, though, they exist in huge numbers and can take up to 300 mL of blood per day from each animal in a caribou herd.
Eggs from strains in the temperate zones are more tolerant to the cold than ones from warmer regions. They can even tolerate snow and subzero temperatures. In addition, adults can survive throughout winter in suitable microhabitats.
Many methods are used for mosquito control. Depending on the situation, the most important usually include:
source reduction (e.g., removing stagnant water)
biocontrol (e.g. importing natural predators such as dragonflies)
trapping, and/or insecticides to kill larvae or adults
exclusion (mosquito nets and window screening)
Visible, irritating bites are due to an immune response from the binding of IgG and IgE antibodies to antigens in the mosquito’s saliva. Some of the sensitizing antigens are common to all mosquito species, whereas others are specific to certain species. There are both immediate hypersensitivity reactions (types I and III) and delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) to mosquito bites. Both reactions result in itching, redness and swelling. Immediate reactions develop within a few minutes of the bite and last for a few hours. Delayed reactions take around a day to develop, and last for up to a week. Several anti-itch medications are commercially available, including those taken orally, such as Benadryl, or topically applied antihistamines and, for more severe cases, corticosteroids, such as hydrocortisone and triamcinolone. Tea tree oil has been shown to be an effective anti-inflammatory, reducing itching.